If obesity and the risk of being overweight was a simple matter of evaluating more carefully when prescribing antibiotics, the problem would be fairly simple. Nevertheless, the risk of obesity and weight gain is affected by a complex mixture of physiologic, environmental, socio-economic, and medical factors.
Bailey, L., Forrest, C., Zhang, P., Richards, T., Livshits, A. and DeRusso, P., 2014. Association of antibiotics in infancy with early childhood obesity. JAMA Pediatrics, 168 (11), 1063.
Bokulich, N., Chung, J., Battaglia, T., Henderson, N., Jay, M., Li, H., D. Lieber, A., Wu, F., Perez-Perez, G., Chen, Y., Schweizer, W., Zheng, X., Contreras, M., Dominguez-Bello, M. and Blaser, M., 2016. Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life. Science Translational Medicine, 8 (343).
Cho, I., Yamanishi, S., Cox, L., Methé, B., Zavadil, J., Li, K., Gao, Z., Mahana, D., Raju, K., Teitler, I., Li, H., Alekseyenko, A. and Blaser, M., 2012. Antibiotics in early life alter the murine colonic microbiome and adiposity. Nature, 488 (7413), 621-626.
Miller, S., Wu, R. and Oremus, M., 2018. The association between antibiotic use in infancy and childhood overweight or obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 19 (11), 1463-1475.
Li, D., Chen, H., Ferber, J. and Odouli, R., 2017. Infection and antibiotic use in infancy and risk of childhood obesity: a longitudinal birth cohort study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 5 (1), 18-25.
Rasmussen, S., Shrestha, S., Bjerregaard, L., Ängquist, L., Baker, J., Jess, T. and Allin, K., 2018. Antibiotic exposure in early life and childhood overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 20 (6), 1508-1514.
World Health Organization (WHO), 2019b. Childhood overweight and obesity [online]. Geneva: WHO. Available from: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/ [Accessed 16 Aug 2019].